If you notice a sudden change in your urine color or if you have blood in your urine, you may have a stone. Unlike other ailments, kidney stones are not painful or noticeable to the naked eye. They are usually discovered in the urine by the patient himself.

Kidney stones are small, hard, bit-sized pieces of minerals that form when your kidneys trap small amounts of minerals in your urinary tract. They often cause no symptoms and are usually harmless. The most common type of kidney stone is called a calcium stone. Its main ingredient is calcium. If you have a calcium stone blockage, you may experience pain in the back of your lower abdomen. You may also experience nausea and vomiting.

Kidney stones are small hardened pieces of minerals and salts that have formed inside your kidneys. They can be tiny or big, they can be pointed, sharp, or flat. Most of them are not painful but they can cause a lot of pain if they move around in your body. So if you’ve ever had a kidney stone you know what we’re talking about.. Read more about what are the first signs of kidney stones and let us know what you think.

There are three aspects of diet and lifestyle that I would never go through:

  1. Catheterization of the heart
  2. Cinnamon bread causes a coma.
  3. Stone in the kidneys

Needless to say, I was ecstatic when I finished this piece.

What are kidney stones, and what causes them?

By eliminating waste materials from the blood, the kidneys create clean blood.

If you consume a can of soup with a lot of salt in it, for example, the kidneys produce extra salt to keep the body’s salt levels balanced. More urea is excreted in the urine after you consume a large steak.

You will get sick if your body is unable to eliminate these wastes. (An introduction to the urinary system may be found here.)

Our kidneys excrete waste in the form of urine. The urine becomes supersaturated when there is too much waste or not enough fluid in the body, and a stone may develop. Stones may range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball.


A penny, a kidney stone, and a needle are three things you never want in your kidneys.

Stones in the kidneys may stay there for years without blocking the ducts. When a stone clogs the ureter, however, the agony is excruciating (kidney stones are considered the worst pain imaginable). As the stone travels to the bladder, the discomfort may go away or return. The majority of the stones are discovered in the bubble tunnel. Because stones may have sharp edges, blood can be drawn to them in the urine.


Kidney stones come in many forms.

Kidney stones may be divided into four categories:

  1. Calcium-containing stones are the most common, accounting for almost 75% of all stones.
  2. Uric acid stones make up approximately ten percent of all stones.
  3. Struvite stones (infected stones) account for approximately 10% of all stones and develop after a urinary tract infection.
  4. Stones made of the amino acid cystine are known as cystine stones.

The composition, frequency, and causes of kidney stones, commonly known as nephrolithiasis (nephro = kidney; lith = stone), are listed in the table below.


Nephrolithiasis: Treatment, Causes, and Prevention, Hall PM. 76:583-592 in Clev Clin J Med, 2009.

What is the significance of kidney stones?

Kidney stones are growing more prevalent, particularly in developed and wealthy nations.

Around 11% of American males and 6% of American women will develop symptomatic kidney stones by the age of 70. Between 1980 and 1994, the incidence of kidney stones in the United States rose by almost 35%. (note: this increase parallels the increase in obesity).


Men aged 60-70 years old, life expectancy with kidney stones, per nation. (KSA stands for Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, while UAE is for United Arab Emirates.)

Chronic illnesses and kidney stones

This can be caused by sweating more (making urine more concentrated), high oxalate levels in fresh fruits and vegetables, barbecues with lots of animal protein, or all at once. The research team even predicts that climate change leading to higher temperatures will increase the number of people suffering from kidney stones.

Kidney stone risk is influenced by a number of variables.

Kidney stones, for starters, may be a symptom of various illnesses. The majority of stonemasons also have the following items:

  • Abnormalities in lipids
  • coronary heart disease
  • Diabetes type 2
  • Blood pressure that is too high
  • Body fat that is excessive
  • Drop

High blood pressure, in particular, increases the risk of stone development by interfering with calcium absorption by the kidneys.

Kidney stones and diet

Doctors think that individuals who develop stones have a deficiency in specific molecules in their urine that prevent them from developing. This is not good news. The good news is that these individuals can regulate stone development by changing what they eat or drink. Changing one’s diet may help around two-thirds of individuals prevent stone development.

In the development of kidney stones, there are six important dietary variables to consider:

  1. Hydration
  2. Animal protein consumption
  3. Calcium
  4. Oxalate
  5. Sodium
  6. Regimes that go to extremes

The first factor is hydration.

The most researched aspect of kidney stones is certainly hydration. That makes sense: preventing stone formation requires enough moisture intake at all times.

Water, salt, urea, oxalate, uric acid, potassium, magnesium, calcium, oxalate, creatinine, and other metabolic acids/wastes are all found in urine. Depending on what we consume, the content of our urine varies. If we don’t drink enough water or consume too many fatty meals, our pee gets more concentrated, increasing our chances of developing stones.

A lack of water, excessive perspiration, or a high-fat diet may all cause concentrated urine (or a combination of all these factors). Sweating a lot causes your body to shed fluids in a different manner, reducing the urge to urinate.

Even if you eat a highly rich diet, if your urine is constantly diluted, you are unlikely to develop stones (but you may suffer from hyponatraemia).

It’s also possible that what you drink has a role.

Calcium stones are prevented by consuming citrate. When the pH of the urine is alkaline, citrate is produced in the kidneys.

Lemons (and other fruits and vegetables) contain potassium citrate, which may raise citrate levels in the urine and protect against kidney stone development. Citric acid, on the other hand, which is found in many soft drinks, has no protective properties. Stone formation seems to be increased by apple juice, grapefruit juice, cranberry juice, and cola beverages. Soft drinks with fruit flavors do not seem to have this harmful impact (including drinks such as Gatorade). Carbon dioxide from dissolved limestone is absorbed by carbonated natural mineral water, which may encourage the development of kidney stones.

As a result, you should try to get your water and fluids from entire meals (e.g. lemons).

To generate adequate pee, you need consume at least 2 litres of fluid each day (water or food) (you need about 2 litres of urine). Water requirements vary depending on body size, climate, physical activity, and other factors. More fluid is required if you are taller, warmer, and/or work harder.

Animal protein is the second factor.

Consumption of high amounts of animal protein, in addition to fluid intake, is probably the most significant factor affecting the development of kidney stones. Why? Some of the causes are as follows:

  1. Purines are found in animal proteins (some plant foods also contain purines, but plant purines do not seem to have the same effect on the body). Purines are broken down into uric acid. A certain quantity in the body is normal, but too much may cause the urine to become oversaturated, resulting in stone formation (stones containing uric acid and calcium).
  2. Proteins derived from animals make urine more acidic, which lowers uric acid solubility and inhibits citrate production. It’s a recipe for disaster if you don’t consume enough alkalizing fruits and veggies.
  3. Glycine and methionine are abundant in animal proteins. Glycine is converted to oxalate, and methionine may raise calcium levels in the urine.

Even though their diet includes more oxalate-rich vegetables, data indicates that individuals who eat a plant-based diet have less kidney stones. People who eat a plant-based diet are approximately a third more likely than those who eat an omnivore diet to develop stones. This may be related to a plant-based diet’s higher intake of citrate-rich foods, which can make urine more alkaline (and prevent stone formation).

According to one research, consuming 77 grams of animal protein vs 50 grams (some individuals consume this much in one meal) increases the risk of kidney stones by 33%. A diet low in animal protein (52 g/day), salt (50 mmol/day), and oxalate (200 mg/day) combined with a typical calcium intake (1200 mg/day) resulted in a nearly 50% decrease in stone formation over five years, according to another research.

Limiting protein to less than 0.8 g/kg body weight per day (about 65 g of protein per day for a 180-pound individual) may cause elevated levels of parathyroid hormone and calcium in the urine.

See All about acids and bases in food for additional information on acid-base balance.

Calcium is the third factor.

We must eliminate extra calcium when we eat and absorb significant quantities of it. Calcium is expelled in a variety of ways, one of which is urine. In certain individuals, high calcium levels in the urine may raise the risk of kidney stones (calcium is the most common mineral in kidney stones).

If too much calcium isn’t healthy for you, a low calcium diet may be much worse.

Insufficient calcium consumption, for starters, may be harmful to bone health.

Second, calcium-rich meals may aid in the binding of oxalates in the gut (see below for additional information on oxalates) and their elimination via the stool (before they are absorbed and reach the kidneys).

Finally, a lack of calcium causes bone loss and higher calcium levels in the urine.

Are calcium supplements a viable option?

The distribution mechanism is changed if calcium from the food is not linked to natural co-factors, and calcium may end up in undesired locations (e.g. calcification in the blood vessels and kidneys). Furthermore, the body may attempt to excrete elemental calcium via the kidneys (resulting in stone formation).

If you use calcium supplements, make sure you get enough calcium from your diet, use only calcium citrate, keep an eye on your vitamin D levels (they shouldn’t be too high or too low), and take them with meals.

A daily calcium intake of 800-1000 mg should enough (total – from food and supplements).

Oxalate is the fourth factor.

Alkaline acid is a naturally occurring chemical that has the ability to bond to minerals. When oxalates crystallize with calcium and form kidney stones, they are very dull.

Where do oxalates come from when someone has a lot of them in their urine? Oxalates may come from five different places:

  1. oxalate-rich plant foods
  2. Metabolic waste in general
  3. Supplements containing vitamin C
  4. Animal proteins
  5. Drinks

Plant foods high in oxalate are the first source.

Because of variations in temperature, soil, age, and location of the plant examined, the oxalate content of plants may vary. Young plants have higher levels of oxalic acid, which humans absorb more readily. Calcium oxalate salts have developed in older plants, which humans consume in lower amounts.

Oxalate-rich foods include

  • Spinach
  • Rhubarb is a kind of rhubarb that (the leaves contain so many oxalates that they are poisonous)
  • Turnip
  • Amarant
  • Chard (Swiss chard)
  • Chives
  • Parsley
  • Cocoa
  • Bays
  • Bran
  • Nuts

Are you already in a state of panic? Don’t worry, diversity is your friend when it comes to your nutrition.

Swap out the kale with spinach. The rhubarb leaves should not be eaten. Only eat beets while they’re in season. When you eat a lot of cocoa, you eat a lot of chocolate, and if you do that on a regular basis, you’ll have issues other than kidney stones. Replace high-oxalate nuts and nut spreads with pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, and macadamia nuts in your diet.

Controlling oxalate consumption with a seasonal diet is possible. Some individuals consume spinach and berries throughout the year. Oxalates, oxalates, oxalates, oxalates Instead, just plant spinach and berries when they’re in season. Choose low-oxalate foods like cauliflower and apples during the other months.

A typical daily meal may include 80 to 100 mg of oxalate, however only 10 to 20% of this quantity is absorbed.

Oxalates can only be eliminated via the urine after they have been ingested.

Hyperoxaluria is a condition in which a high quantity of oxalate is excreted in the urine, and it is most likely not caused by a poor diet. Excessive gut absorption (oxalates are more absorbed in the stomach in cases of inflammatory bowel illness), poor calcium intake (calcium fixes oxalates in the gut), inadequate fiber intake, and endogenous generation are also factors.

The issue of oxalates in diet is complicated. In reality, there is evidence that eating foods high in oxalate does not increase the chance of forming stones.

Source 2: Metabolic waste in general

Oxalate is formed as a result of normal metabolic activities in the body.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is a coenzyme in the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine, and a lack of it may cause the body to produce more oxalate. Whole wheat, brown rice, green leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, potatoes, chickpeas, bananas, spinach, tomatoes, avocados, almonds, peanut butter, lima beans, and peppers are all good sources of vitamin B6.

Supplements containing vitamin C are the third source.

After consumption, vitamin C preparations (ascorbic acid) may be converted to oxalic acid.


Animal proteins are the fourth source.

Oxalate synthesis may occur when we utilize amino acids as a source of energy. Furthermore, there is evidence that eating more animal protein causes an oxalate precursor called glycolate to rise. These effects, however, may vary depending on the kind of stone to which a person is susceptible.


From animal proteins to oxalates, there are metabolic routes. QV Nguyen, et al., Nguyen QV, et al., Nguyen QV, e In idiopathic calcium carriers, sensitivity to animal protein consumption and hyperoxaluria. Kidney International, 59, 2273-2281, 2001.

Beverages are the fifth source.

Cola soft drinks may cause higher oxalate levels in the urine while also lowering magnesium and citrate levels. If you care about your kidneys, this is bad news. Caffeine and sugar-free cola, on the other hand, have been shown to have no detrimental impact on stone formation.

Although these beverages may contain oxalates, those who consume modest quantities of coffee, wine, and tea are less likely to develop kidney stones. Coffee/tea with milk may help bind oxalates and prevent them from being absorbed (this is due to the calcium, so any non-dairy milk fortified with calcium is good). Black tea has more oxalates than green tea, rooibos, and herbal teas.

Increased amounts of oxalate, calcium, and uric acid in the urine may result from excessive sugar intake (in food or drink).

Sodium is the fifth factor.

An increase in sodium in the diet causes an increase in calcium excretion in the urine, which may influence stone development.

Most people are now aware (hopefully) that processed foods are the source of the majority of our salt. Limiting salt intake to fewer than 2300 mg per day – which may be accomplished easily by eating unprocessed whole foods – will substantially decrease the quantity of oxalate and calcium in the urine, which can help avoid stone formation.

Note on salt: While a little amount of sodium in a drink may help you stay within your daily fluid consumption of 2 liters, the advantages of drinking more water outweigh the dangers of drinking more sodium.

Factor 6: Authoritarian regimes

Yo-yo dieting is well known for increasing the risk of gallstones, but it also raises the chance of kidney stones.

Large portions and substantial meals, particularly late at night before sleep, may result in urine that is very concentrated. Furthermore, the yo-yo diet continuously burns down stored fat for energy, resulting in metabolic byproducts (such as ketones) that the kidneys must filter out. These by-products tend to make urine more acidic, which may contribute to the development of stones.

A low-carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein diet may raise urine acidity, lower urinary citrate levels, and raise urinary calcium levels, putting you at risk for kidney stones.

Factors we can’t control


Kidney stones often run in families. If you have a family member with kidney stones, your risk of getting stones is 2 to 3 times higher. Specific factors are associated with this.

Glyoxylate aminotransferase (GAT) is a vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)-dependent liver enzyme that converts glyoxylate to glycine, preventing oxalate production from glyoxylate.

AGT may be more concentrated in mitochondria than in periaxisomes due to genetic differences. Plant glycolate is processed more effectively by peroxisomes, whereas hydroxyproline from meat is processed by mitochondria, both of which are sources of glyoxylate synthesis.

As a result, some TFA genetic variants may impact a person’s reaction to a diet, as well as the choice of the most suitable diet, whether it’s a plant-based or meat-based diet. (This may also explain why researchers are still trying to figure out which dietary variables are the most important: people’s genetic risk and diet responses vary.)

Other genetic differences may have an impact on oxalate absorption in the stomach and sodium phosphate transporters in the kidneys.

Health issues and chronic illnesses

Kidney stones may develop as a result of a variety of medical conditions. These are some of the conditions:

  • Diseases of the intestine
  • Medullary sponge kidney is a kind of kidney that has a sponge-like
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Lactic acid syndrome and stomach ulcers became increasingly frequent in the early twentieth century as a result of individuals attempting to treat stomach ulcers with milk and antacids, resulting in dangerously high calcium levels in the blood. This disease is resurfacing as a result of increased calcium and vitamin D intake.
  • Kidney anatomical abnormalities are a kind of anatomical abnormality that occurs when the kidneys are not
  • Paralysis
  • Acidosis of the tubules of the kidneys
  • Cystinuria
  • Oxalosis

Kidney stones are treated with a variety of medications.

  • To raise the pH of the urine, alkaline potassium salts are employed. If they irritate your stomach, you may need to dilute them with water.
  • Potassium salts may be replaced by alkaline sodium salts.
  • Thiazides are diuretics that are used to lower calcium levels in the urine. If you do use them, keep an eye on your salt consumption. They may cause the body’s potassium levels to drop.
  • Allopurinol – lowers the body’s synthesis of uric acid. Side effects are very dangerous.

Conclusions and suggestions

We’ve had a lot of success with kidney stones. However, you should never have a kidney stone – or, even worse, many of them.

Here are some strategies for lowering your risk.

Maintain a diluted urine.

2 litres of water each day is recommended. Coffee, tea, lemon water, and alcohol in small quantities may also be beneficial.

Remove everything that isn’t needed.

Our bodies must eliminate whatever we ingest if they do not utilize chemicals. Overeating, drinking too much alcohol, and taking medicines may all place a burden on the kidneys. The kidneys are strained by heavy meals, yo-yo dieting, and overeating, which may lead to stone development. Before going to bed, stay away from big meals. (You will sleep better in both instances.)

Variation in fruit, vegetable, and nut/seed consumption

Your kidneys may get overwhelmed if you consume oxalate-rich meals all year. To give your kidneys a rest, eat a diverse diet and eat in season. In addition, the goods will be more fresh. Bonus!

Animal proteins are restricted.

If you are at danger, you should consume no more than 50 grams of animal protein each day. If feasible, supplement the remainder with plant-based sources.

Reduce your sodium intake.

Less than 100 micromoles per day (2300 milligrams per day). It’s simple if you avoid processed meals.

Keeping costs low

Because the body burns less fat, the kidneys have to process less waste.

Calcium management

Calcium intake should not exceed 800-1000 mg per day (from food and supplements). You don’t want too much or too little calcium.

Vitamin supplements should be used with care.

Increased calcium levels in the urine and the development of stones are linked to vitamin A and D. Take vitamin D just when you need it (as determined by a blood test), and consume fortified foods when possible.

Vitamin C formulations may be eliminated in the urine as oxalate. Unless you’re lacking, don’t consume it.

This covers meals and beverages that have been fortified.

Find a specialist if you have stones.

Be wary of online con artists.

Antacids that include calcium should be avoided.

They may cause phosphate deficiency as well as an increase in calcium levels in the urine.

supplementary appropriation

Kidney stones were a problem for Ben Franklin.

Magnesium deficiency may lead to the development of oxalate kidney stones. Apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, whole grain products, almonds, and green leafy vegetables are all good sources of magnesium.

If you haven’t already been concerned about kidney stones, wait till you see a photo obtained during a ureteroscopy!


Although kidney stones are more common in more wealthy areas, uranium miners in East Tennessee and adults in northeastern Thailand have the highest prevalence of kidney stones in the world.

Indinavir, a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV/AIDS, has been linked to the development of stones.

Oxalate absorption may be increased by eating a lot of fat.

In most cases, the calcium to oxalate ratio in the urine is 10:1.

A high-protein diet and malnutrition both increase the likelihood of stone development.

There are presently no tests or studies that indicate that cannabis contains oxalic acid. By 2011, Living Harvest aims to have a report ready.

NSAIDs and paracetamol may harm the kidneys and increase the risk of stone development with long-term usage.

The pH of the urine changes during pregnancy, which may raise the chance of stone development.

Although South Africans are practically resistant to kidney stone development, conventional urine tests have failed to pinpoint the reason.

Flomax may enhance the likelihood of stone passing on its own (in people in whom stones can pass).


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Kidney stones are a common problem that most people are aware of. They are small, hard and painful stones that form when calcium can no longer pass from your kidney into your urine. Losing calcium in your urine can cause your urine to become more concentrated. This leads to the formation of these stones.. Read more about how to pass a kidney stone in 24 hours and let us know what you think.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long does it take to pass a kidney stone?

It takes about two to three hours for a kidney stone to pass.

What are the starting symptoms of kidney stone?

The symptoms of kidney stone can vary depending on the type of stone. In general, however, people with kidney stones may experience pain in their side or back, nausea and vomiting, fever, chills, and/or blood in their urine.

What actually causes kidney stones?

Kidney stones are a result of the formation of crystals in urine, which is caused by a build-up of substances like calcium and oxalate.

This article broadly covered the following related topics:

  • kidney stone
  • what causes kidney stones
  • kidney stones
  • types of kidney stones
  • how to pass a kidney stone in 24 hours
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